Originally, jeans were dyed with the color of the actual indigo plant.
Today, natural indigo jeans can’t be considered metaefficient because they are expensive and only available as a kind of designer jean. Notwithstanding this, people admire these jeans because of their distinctive, deeply hued appearance. The story behind them is interesting too.
Almost all blue jeans are chemically dyed these days. Unfortunately, chemical dyeing usually involves toxic fixing agents and heavy metals. Yet, even clothing produced with organically grown fibers using “low impact” dyes, requires the same toxic fixing agents. Here, “low impact” means the dye is absorbed better and chlorine is not used for bleaching (usually hydrogen peroxide is used).
So what did people do before these processes were even available?